I had this particular case where the suite links or the Newsfeed, OneDrive link in the top nav bar where not showing except in the Central Admin.
After googling a bit I found some suggestions that were impossible to accomplish in my case. Like recreating the user profile or granting access to the profile database to the users…
I found a solution that was not that invasive and worked form me:
- Go to Central Administration > Manage Service Applications > User Profile Services
- Click on Manage User Permissions
- Grant your users permissions to use the social features